Battle of Actium (Great Battles Through the Ages) - download pdf or read online
By David J. Califf Ph.d.
Recounts occasions best as much as and surrounding the 31 B.C. conflict of Actium throughout the Roman Civil conflict, in addition to its long-lasting effects.
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Extra resources for Battle of Actium (Great Battles Through the Ages)
Although Octavian tried to capitalize on Antony’s blunders, his own successes were almost certainly of greater consequence. , he had successfully completed the wars in Illyricum, and many generals who supported him were equally successful in Spain and Africa. With these victories came financial resources, which Octavian wisely funneled into public works projects in Rome, including both new construction and the restoration of old temples, bath houses, and other public facilities. Under the supervision of Agrippa, there were substantial improvements to the aqueduct and sewer systems.
Perhaps the official ending date was not even clear at the time. In any case, the supposed expiration seems to have had little effect on Antony, who continued to call himself triumvir and, as a semidivine king in Alexandria, presided over a vast Eastern empire. Octavian’s hold on power in Italy was considerably more tenuous. Although he retained his provincial commands in Spain, Gaul, Africa, Sicily, and Sardinia, without the title of triumvir he would have no legal power in Rome or anywhere in Italy.
If Rome ever needed to expand, that objective could be accomplished by land forces working in Italy to subdue the neighboring tribes. The chief threat of external attack came from the Gauls in the north, but they could also be repulsed by land forces. Rome, therefore, found itself with little need of a navy either to protect commerce, extend its territory, or defend itself. The largest sea power at the time was the North African city of Carthage, in modern Tunisia. As the commercial capital of I 63 64 BATTLE OF ACTIUM the Mediterranean, Carthage controlled ports throughout the western half of the sea, in Spain, northern Africa, Sardinia, and Sicily, and supplied the trading needs of at least 5 million people.
Battle of Actium (Great Battles Through the Ages) by David J. Califf Ph.d.