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By Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr
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Additional resources for Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond
In the context of social movements, framing refers to the interactive, collective ways that movement actors assign meanings to their activities in the conduct of social movement activism. The concept of framing is designed for discussing the social construction of grievances as a fluid and variable process of social interaction” (2000, 41). Robert Benford and David Snow (2000) emphasize that frames have to be “culturally resonant” and morally justifiable if a claim is to be accepted and supported by the larger society.
We painstakingly read these quotes, organizing them into sections and subsections in the chapters. Our goal was to present the perspective of Middle Eastern and Muslim American leadership on the post-9/11 backlash. To validate our interviews, we cite corroborative evidence whenever possible. , Breton 1964; Handlin 1973; Mirak 1983; Thomas and Znaniecki 1918–20/1958; Warner 1963). However in recent decades, analysis of immigrant/ethnic organizations has fallen out of favor (see chapter 4). The main reasons for this waning interest are probably shifts in methodology and a preoccupation with sample representativeness.
The Japanese internment during World War II stands out as the most egregious case. Others include the mandatory registration and detention of German immigrants and citizens during World War I; the harassment and deportation of communist sympathizers after the Palmer raids (1919–20); the witch-hunt against suspected Communist Party members during McCarthyism; and the mandatory registration and threatened deportation of Iranian students in the United States during the hostage crisis in 1979–81. In March 2002, Operation TIPS (Terrorism Information and Prevention System; see chapter 6) proposed that service personnel, such as mail carriers, “spy” on fellow citizens, but this initiative was defeated by American grassroots opposition.
Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans Respond by Anny Bakalian, Medhi Bozorgmehr