Aristotle, Prior Analytics by Aristotle, Smith (trans.) PDF

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By Aristotle, Smith (trans.)

ISBN-10: 0872200647

ISBN-13: 9780872200647

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Sample text

For let A be raven, B stand for reasoning, and C stand for man. Then, A will belong to no B (for nothing that reasons is a raven), while it is possible for B to belong to every C (for reasoning is possible for every man). However, A belongs of necessity to no C; therefore, the conclusion is not a possible one. Yet neither is it always necessary. For let A be moving, B science, C stand for man. Then A will belong to no B, while it is possible for B to belong to every C, and 10 15 20 25 30 35 24 40 350 PRIOR ANALYTICS A 15 the conclusion will not be necessary (for it is not necessary that no man be moving.

Terms for belonging are white, animal, raven; for not belonging, white, stone, raven. And if the premises are positive, terms for not belonging are white, animal. snow; for belonging, white, animal, swan. It is evident, then, that when the premises are of the same form and one is universal and one particular, a deduction comes about in no way. But neither does a deduction come about if the middle term belongs or does not belong to some of each extreme, or belongs to one and does not belong to the other, or not to all of either, or indeterminately.

Premises of these sorts are positive and not privative: for 'to be possible' is arranged similarly to 'to be,' as was stated earlier. Having made these distinctions, let us next explain that 'to be passible' has two meanings. One meaning is what happens for the most part and falls short of necessity, as for a man to turn gray or grow or shrink, or in general what is natural to belong (for this does not have continuous necessity because a man does not always exist; however, when there is a man, it is either of necessity or for the most part).

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Aristotle, Prior Analytics by Aristotle, Smith (trans.)


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