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By Franz Clemens Brentano

Edited and translated by way of Rolf George and Roderick M. Chisholm.

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If ethics does not display the exactness appropriate to science (epistêmê),2 as Aristotle defines science in APo. 1–2 and 8–10, then it seems that there cannot be a science of ethics, and we should expect the enquiry in the Nicomachean Ethics to diverge from the method of enquiry described in the Analytics. 4 Universals pick out the essences of the substances with which a science is concerned, and these essences belong to the kind-members of necessity. Particulars have no such connection to essences.

He then turns his attention to the so-called nominal definitions that specify what people mean by the terms ‘justice’ and ‘injustice’. This is meant to provide a starting point for discovering (in Stage Three) the essence of 18 19 20 This is also noted by Devereux, Chapter 6. Devereux is of course only talking about the special books of the EN that are not common to the EE (which excludes EN 7). His developmental hypothesis is also based on the accepted view that the special books of the EN are later than those of the EE.

1124a1). Once the significance of ‘magnanimity’ has been established, the search for an account can proceed. States of character and their associated feelings are furthermore principles in a third sense: they are causes of movement, whether ‘movement’ is understood in the strict sense (praxis as a manifestation of our rational natures) or in the unrestricted sense (any episode of behaviour, whether rational or non-rational). (3) Principles of movement/action (archê tou kinein/praxeôn) Aristotle uses ‘principle’ about each of the four causes.

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Aristotle and His World View by Franz Clemens Brentano

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