Ancient Rome, from the earliest times down to 476 A. D by Robert F. Pennell PDF

Ancient Civilizations

By Robert F. Pennell

Robert Franklin Pennell (1850, Maine – 1905, San Francisco) used to be an American educator and classicist.

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The Via Flaminia, the great northern road, was extended from SPOLETIUM to ARIMINUM. ] Meanwhile Carthage was not idle. After subduing the revolt of the mercenaries in 237, she formed the project of obtaining SPAIN as compensation for the loss of Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Hamilcar Barca, by energetic measures, established (236-228) a firm foothold in Southern and Southeastern Spain. At his death, his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, continued his work. Many towns were founded, trade prospered, and agriculture flourished.

This famous march of Hannibal from the Rhone lasted thirtythree days, and cost him 20,000 infantry and 3,000 cavalry. The Romans were still unprepared to meet Hannibal. One army was in Spain under Gnaeus Scipio; the other in Sicily, on its way to Africa, under the Consul Sempronius. The only troops immediately available were a few soldiers that had been left in the valley of the Po to restrain the Gauls, who had recently shown signs of defection. Map of Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps The hardships of the descent were fully as great, and the fertile valley of the Po was a welcome sight to the half-famished and 53 Publius Cornelius Scipio, upon his return from Massilia, took command of these.

With these he crossed the mountains, and marched along the coast by Narbo (Narbonne) and Nemansus (Nîmes), through the Celtic territory, with little opposition. The last of July found him on the banks of the Rhone, opposite Avenio (Avignon). The Romans were astonished at the rapidity of his movements. The Consuls of the year were SCIPIO and SEMPRONIUS. The former had been in Northern Italy, leisurely collecting forces to attack Hannibal in Spain; the latter was in Sicily, making preparations to invade Africa.

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Ancient Rome, from the earliest times down to 476 A. D by Robert F. Pennell

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