An Introduction to Marine Geology by M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.) PDF

Introduction

By M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)

ISBN-10: 0080125050

ISBN-13: 9780080125053

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3 . 4 . 300 400 SCALE IN NAUTICAL 500 MILES Fig. 4. T h e continental margin off eastern North America: bathymétrie profiles east of Cape Hatteras, Virginia, and the Blake Plateau (after B. C. 126) Heezen and H. W. Menard< ). 40 An Introduction to Marine Geology development of an outer ridge and a marginal escarpment at the foot of the slope in the southerly profiles. The comment has been made that the lower part of the continental rise off New England can be traced to the Outer Ridge of the Antilles, and that whereas off the Antilles a trench such as the Puerto Rico trench lies between the land and the outer ridge, ( 1 2 6) Similar off New England the trench has been filled in by sediment.

The sediments which accumulate in many other parts of the ocean basins can be termed pelagic, which means "of the open sea" (Fig. 1). The purposes of a study of pelagic sediments are numerous, and some are the following: (1) T o see what are the processes of sedimentation in the deep-sea today, and what they have been in the past. (2) T o account for the distribution of elements between the oceans and the continents. (3) T o study the changes in fauna and flora both areally and with time. Such changes are important for their own sake, but also lead to information which may be valuable in determining the past climatic conditions on the earth, the circulation in the ocean and in the atmosphere.

56 An Introduction to Marine Geology If we are to use the skeletons of these micro-organisms to determine past océanographie conditions, then there must be assurance that the present distribution on the ocean floor reflects with sufficient accuracy the distribution in the water masses above. The organisms must also be sensitive to changes in the properties of the water masses, to the temperature of the water at the surface, for example, and the relationship between the changes that are found in the organisms and the properties of the water must be known.

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An Introduction to Marine Geology by M. J. Keen and J. A. Jacobs (Auth.)


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