Download PDF by William A. Douglass: Amerikanuak: Basques In The New World
By William A. Douglass
A vintage examine of the Basque diaspora now on hand in paperback. while Amerikanuak used to be first released in 1975, it was once hailed as either a pioneering research of 1 of the yank West’s most vital ethnic minorities and as an interesting, accomplished survey of Basque migration and cost within the Americas. Its price as a necessary creation to the historical past of the Basque humans and their 5 centuries of involvement within the New international has now not lowered within the thirty years due to the fact that, and it continues to be the main available review of the Basque diaspora within the Western Hemisphere. learn for the booklet took the authors via ten states of the yank West, Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela as they traced the exploits of Basque whalers within the medieval Atlantic, the Basque conquistadors, missionaries, and colonists who shaped a dramatic a part of the historical past of Spanish the USA, and the Basque sheepherders who have been the spine of the now approximately vanished range-sheep empires of the yankee West. additionally they stick to the tale of the Basques again to their mysterious origins in prehistory to supply history for figuring out the Basques’ personality and their place of origin within the Pyrenean mountains and seacoasts among France and Spain. This new paperback variation makes this necessary examine of Basques in the United States to be had to a different iteration of readers. It incorporates a clean preface by means of William A. Douglass that considers the learn of Basque emigration because the book’s first booklet. The Basque sequence
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Additional info for Amerikanuak: Basques In The New World
Wodericus abandon his siege immediately. He moved his forces southward and contacted the Arabs in southern Iberia, but as the armies prepared for combat a portion of the Gothic forces deserted. Rodericus was unable to organize effective resistance and was himself slain in a minor battle in 713. His widow married one of the Arab leaders, and the Arabs quickly consolidated their control over most of the Iberian peninsula. Aquila was nomi- THE BASQUE PEOPLE 39 nated king of the Goths, but in 714 he traveled with his brothers to Damascus and sold the kingdom to Caliph Walid I (705 - 15) for lands and money?
They also constructed secondary roadways into the high country that terminated at Roman-controlled mining operations. Finally, Basque mountain tribesmen were recruited into the Roman legions. In fact, legions that were essentially Basque in makeup served in Rome's Rhine defenses18 and along the Hadrian wall of Britain. l g It is likely that the Romans failed to establish a greater visible presence in the northern zone of the Basque country for the simple reason that they had little incentive to do so, particularly as long as the Basque tribes refrained from provocations.
More recently the tourist industry, notably in the French Basque area, has provided girls from peasant villages with summer seasonal employment. Finally, in the frontier areas the ubiquitous contraband traffic provided Basque peasants with gau lana , or "night work," at excellent wages. During the twentieth century much of this household subsistence orientation in the Basque peasant economy has declined due to a rising level of material wants among the rural populace. Many Basque farmsteads have simply been abandoned, their former owners moving to cities in search of factory jobs or opportunity as small-scale shopkeepers.
Amerikanuak: Basques In The New World by William A. Douglass