New PDF release: 45.Plasma Science

Teen Young Adult

By John G. Webster (Editor)

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7 and 8. 417 the distance from the atomic center the linear Stark effect vanishes if the unperturbed eigenstates of the physical system under consideration are not degenerate. Due to the symmetries of hydrogenlike atoms the eigenstates are degenerate with respect to the angular momentum and the magnetic quantum number. Therefore the linear Stark effect can be observed only for those atoms and ions. For nonhydrogenic atoms, for example, alkali-metal atoms, the angular momentum degeneracy is removed due to the multielectron interaction of the atomic core and hence only the quadratic Stark effect can be observed.

Effect of the electric field on the potential energy of an electron in the Coulomb field of a proton in atomic units. 14 ϫ 109 V/cm). Potential Barrier One of the most fascinating quantum phenomena is tunneling. A classical particle with energy E smaller than the potential height V of a potential barrier cannot penetrate this wall. In quantum mechanics the continuity of the wave function in space implies that the amplitude of a wave function will only decrease inside the wall and hence there is a finite probability of finding the particle beyond the classical turning point.

Variety of toroidal devices are possible from these basic components. Some have been successful and are the subject of continuing research, while others have been abandoned as false starts. Later sections will describe some of the more promising schemes. Confinement of individual particles is a necessary but not sufficient condition for magnetic confinement. Plasmas can be thought of as electrically conducting fluids, capable of carrying current and exhibiting collective behavior, like waves. At sufficient pressure, and at the densities and temperatures necessary for fusion, plasmas exert considerable pressure; these collective effects can generate magnetic fields that compete in strength with those confining them.

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45.Plasma Science by John G. Webster (Editor)


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